Because the need for food is about as universal as it gets, every religion must carefully consider the proper ways to engage with food. Each religion has its own sets of restricted and forbidden foods. The dietary codes that make sense to one religion may not make sense to another and vice versa. And yet all religions have something to say on the subject. Fasting—refraining from food for specified amounts of time—is a common form of spiritual practice that uses the body to cultivate certain inner states of mind and self.
One Universal God
“Then Jesus declared, ‘I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never go hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty.’"
“But food does not bring us near to God; we are no worse if we do not eat, and no better if we do."
“One of the marks of a certain type of bad man is that he cannot give up a thing himself without wanting every one else to give it up. That is not the Christian way. An individual Christian may see fit to give up all sorts of things for special reasons — marriage, or meat, or beer, or the cinema; but the moment he starts saying the things are bad in themselves, or looking down his nose at other people who do use them, he has taken the wrong turning."
“‘Fasting is not simply abstaining from food,’ she explained to me, ‘but it is a condition through which a Muslim comes to train herself in the virtues[fada’il] of patience [sabr], trust in God [tawakkul] , asceticism from worldly pleasures[zuhd], etc.’ In Fatma's view, therefore, an act of fasting that does not enable one to acquire these virtues transforms fasting from a religious act to a folkloric custom.”
“One who is full loathes honey from the comb, but to the hungry even what is bitter tastes sweet.”
“Moses was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights without eating bread or drinking water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant—the Ten Commandments."
“In matters of diet, as in medicine, the Universal House of Justice feels that the believers should be aware that a huge body of scientific knowledge has been accumulated as a guide to our habits and practices. But it must be clearly understood that no specific school of nutrition or medicine has been associated with the Bahá’í teachings."
“In regard to the question as to whether people ought to kill animals for food of not, there is no explicit statement in the Bahá’í Sacred Scriptures (as far as I know) in favor or against it. It is certain, however, that if man can live on a purely vegetarian diet and thus avoid killing animals, it would be much preferable. This is, however, a very controversial question and the Bahá’ís are free to express their views on it.”
“Some people lay stress on fasting. They affirm that in augmenting the weakness of the body they develop a spiritual sensibility and thus they think to approach God. Weakening one's self physically does not necessarily contribute to spiritual progress. Humility, kindness, resignation, and all these spiritual attributes emanating from great physical strength are acceptable to God[…]Exaggerated fasting destroys the divine forces.”
“Verily, I say, fasting is the supreme remedy and the most great healing for the disease of self and passion.”
“Fasting is essentially a period of meditation and prayer, of spiritual recuperation, during which the believer must strive to make the necessary readjustments in his inner life, and to refresh and reinvigorate the spiritual forces latent in his soul. Its significance and purpose are, therefore, fundamentally spiritual in character. Fasting is symbolic, and a reminder of abstinence from selfish and carnal desires."
“To cook is not just to prepare food for someone or for yourself; it is to express your sincerity. So when you cook you should express yourself in your activity in the kitchen. You should allow yourself plenty of time; you should work on it with nothing in your mind, and without expecting anything. You should just cook! That is also an expression of our sincerity, a part of our practice. It is necessary to sit in zazen, in this way, but sitting is not our only way. Whatever you do, it should be an expression of the same deep activity. We should appreciate what we are doing. There is no preparation for something else."
“Confucius said, ‘Go away and fast, then I will tell you what to do. While still plotting, do you think you can really be guided in what to do? The one who thinks he has it will not easily be guided by the Light of Heaven.’
‘The Hui family is poor,’ said Yen Hui, ‘and we have not drunk wine or eaten meat for months. In this instance, will this count as having fasted?’
‘This is fasting for the sacrifice, but not fasting of the heart.’
‘Then what is fasting of the heart?’
‘Your mind must become one, do not try to understand with your ears but with your heart. Indeed, not with your heart but with your soul. Listening blocks the ears, set your heart on what is right, but let your soul be open to receive in true sincerity. The Way is found in emptiness. Emptiness is the fasting of the heart.’
Yen Hui said, ‘Previously, when I fasted, but not with the fast of the heart, I felt I was Hui; when I went on to the fast of the heart, I found I was not Hui. Is this what is called emptiness?’
The great Master said, ‘Precisely!'"
“In periods of purification, [Confucius] invariably wore a house robe made of the cheaper sort of material. In periods of purification, he invariably changed to a more austere diet and, when at home, did not sit in his usual place."
“Suppose you were a Martian anthropologist and observed that all human beings sustain themselves by eating food. You could compare the different tastes of food the world over and try and find common features. That would take lots of effort without any very clear results. It would seem that there are many, many different foods on Earth and no simple way of finding the common elements. But now imagine you were a good Martian anthropologist. You would study the chemistry of cooking, which would reveal that there are only a few ways to process food(marinating, salting, roasting, smoking, boiling, grilling, etc.) and a large but limited number of ingredients. You would soon be able to report that the apparently unlimited variety of human cuisine is explained by combinations of a limited set of techniques and a limited set of materials. This is precisely what we can do with religious concepts, moving from the table to the kitchen and observing how the concepts are concocted in human minds."
“From a comparativist perspective, the truth is that it does not matter what the dietary rules are, as long as there are dietary rules. Put a bit differently, what the dietary codes are about is not the content of the codes themselves, but their functions. And these functions boil down to two: (1) the formation of an individual religious identity and of a set of emotions (purity, pollution, shame, guilt, disgust, and so on) through a necessarily repeated daily act; and(2) the subsequent segregation or separation of a community around these identities, biological acts, and emotions. In short, eating regulations not only help shape and maintain a very particular religious identity; they also form and police a very particular community. They help make a world."
“The comparative method, in short, effortlessly reveals the arbitrary nature of dietary rules. What is a horrific impurity or a devastating pollution in one cultural arena is an expensive delicacy in another. The simple truth is that human beings, as a species now, will eat practically anything that provides nourishment (and a large number of things that do not). From a comparative perspective, it is clear that dietary codes are historically constructed and culturally relative."
“Meat can never be obtained without injury to living creatures, and injury to sentient beings is detrimental to the attainment of heavenly bliss; let him therefore shun the use of meat. Having well considered the disgusting origin of flesh and the cruelty of fettering and slaying corporeal beings, let him entirely abstain from eating flesh."
"Moses said: 'It is the Lord who will give you flesh to eat in the evening, and bread in the morning to the full' " (Exod. 16: 18). 4 R. Aha bar Jacob said: At first Israel were like hens randomly pecking away in a heap of refuse, until Moses came and fixed definite mealtimes for them."
“He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” (2:173)
“Fasting can help to curb animal passion, only if it is undertaken with a view to self-restraint […] That is to say, fasting is futile unless it is accompanied by an incessant longing for self-restraint.”
"There is not a single being, wandering in the chain of lives in endless and beginning less samsara, that has not been your mother or your sister. An individual, born as a dog, may afterward become your father. Each and every being is like an actor playing on the stage of life. One’s flesh and the flesh of others is the same flesh. Therefore the Enlightened Ones eat no meat. Moreover, Mahjushri, the dharmadhatu is the common nature of all beings, therefore Buddhas refrain from eating meat."